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Про большого елового усача Лесу угрожают пожары, засухи, ураганы, не говоря уже о людской небрежности и неосторожности. Но особенно сложно в тысячекилометровой тайге справиться с вредными насекомыми. Один из самых страшных вредителей — большой еловый усач. Скопища усачей способны погубить большие лесные массивы; это сильный, вы­носливый враг, поведение которого еще окончательно не изучено. Прочитать остальную часть записи »

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Университет Российской академии образования Реферат по теоретической грамматике на тему: “Adjective” Факультет иностранных языков 311 группа Москва, 2001 The adjectiveexpresses the categorial semantics of property of a substance. It means thateach adjective used in tile text presupposes relation to some noun the propertyof whose referent it denotes, such as its material, colour, dimensions, position, state, and other characteristics both per­manent and temporary. It follows fromthis that, unlike nouns, adjectives do not possess a full nominative value. Indeed, words like long, hospitable, fragrant cannot effectany self-dependent nominations; as units of informative sequences they existonly in collocations showing what is long, who is hospitable, what is fragrant. Thesemantically bound character of the adjective is emphasized in English by theuse of the prop-substitute one in theabsence of the notional head-noun of the phrase. E. g.: Idon`t want a yellow balloon, let mehave the green one over there. On the otherhand, if the adjective is placed in a nominatively self-dependent position, this leads to its substantivi­zation. E. g.: Outside it was a beautiful day, and the sun tinged the snow with red. Cf.: The sun tinged the snow with thered colour. Adjectives aredistinguished by a specific combinability with nouns, which they modify, if notaccompanied by ad­juncts, usually in pre-position, and occasionally in post­position; by a combinability with link-verbs, both functional and notional; by acombinability with modifying adverbs. In the sentencethe adjective performs the functions of anattribute and a predicative. Ofthe two, the more specific function of the adjective is that of an attribute, since the function of a predicative can be performed by the noun as well. Thereis, though, a profound difference between the predicative uses of the adjectiveand the noun which is de­termined by their native categorial features. Namely, the predicative adjective expresses some attributive property of itsnoun-referent, whereas the predicative noun expresses various substantivalcharacteristics of its referent, such as its identification or classificationof different types. This can be shown on examples analysed by definitional andtransfor­mational procedures. Cf.: You talk topeople as if they were a group. —>You talk to people as if they formed agroup. Quite obviously, he was a friend. —> His behaviour was like that of a friend. Cf., as against the above: I will be silent as a grave. —> I will be like a silent grave. Walker felt healthy. —> Walkerfelt a healthy man. It was sensational. —> That fact was a sensational fact. When used aspredicatives or post-positional attributes, a considerable number ofadjectives, in addition to the gen­eral combinability characteristics of thewhole class, are distinguished by a complementive combinability with nouns. Thecomplement-expansions of adjectives are effected by means of prepositions. E. g. fondof, jealous of, curious of, suspicious of; angry with, sick with, seriousabout,...